Archives

  • 2018-07
  • 2019-04
  • 2019-05
  • 2019-06
  • 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2019-12
  • 2020-01
  • 2020-02
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-04
  • 2020-05
  • 2020-06
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-09
  • 2020-10
  • 2020-11
  • 2020-12
  • 2021-01
  • 2021-02
  • 2021-03
  • 2021-04
  • 2021-05
  • 2021-06
  • 2021-07
  • 2021-08
  • 2021-09
  • 2021-10
  • 2021-11
  • 2021-12
  • 2022-01
  • 2022-02
  • 2022-03
  • 2022-04
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-09
  • 2022-10
  • 2022-11
  • 2022-12
  • 2023-01
  • 2023-02
  • 2023-03
  • 2023-04
  • 2023-05
  • 2023-06
  • 2023-07
  • 2023-08
  • 2023-09
  • 2023-10
  • 2023-11
  • 2023-12
  • 2024-01
  • 2024-02
  • By promoting bundling and processive elongation of actin fil

    2023-09-15

    By promoting bundling and processive elongation of Lck Inhibitor filaments and inhibiting association of capping protein with filament barbed ends, Ena/VASP family proteins contribute to the dynamics of lamellipodia and filopodia [41] and maintenance of focal adhesions and tight junctions [42, 43]. Accordingly, shortly after cytoplasmic delivery of ACD, we observed ceasing of VASP dynamics at the leading edge (Figures 4B and 4C), major inhibition of filopodia formation, and VASP disconnection from the paxillin-marked focal adhesion contacts and actin stress fibers, accompanied by its partitioning into smaller clusters (Figure 4D). In cell contacts, Ena/VASP is an essential element of the mechanosensory machinery, enabling dynamic adjustments of actin filament lengths at the tips of contact-associated stress fibers [42, 43]. Dissociation of VASP coincided with the disruption of focal adhesion contacts to less organized, smaller aggregates that were poorly associated with actin stress fibers (Figure 4D). Given the highly promiscuous binding abilities of the oligomers, it is conceivable that, in such aggregates, VASP is linked by the oligomers to other multivalent actin-binding proteins (e.g., NPFs, formins, and Spire) [41, 44] (Saurez et al., 2015, Mol. Biol. Cell, abstract; Vizcarra et al., Mol. Biol. Cell, abstract) that often function within proximity of each other. Inhibition of Ena by the oligomers and disruption of VASP-containing structures suggests that the previously reported drop in epithelial integrity [13] may be mediated not only by inhibition of formins but also of Ena/VASP proteins. To summarize, we demonstrated here that actin oligomers produced by ACD toxins from Vibrio and related bacterial species overcome an overabundance of their natural target (actin) and potently disrupt numerous actin-related processes by acting as universal multivalent inhibitors of oligomeric and tandem-organized G- and F-actin binding proteins.
    STAR★Methods
    Acknowledgments We would like to thank Dr. Naoki Watanabe (Kyoto University) for a generous gift of XTC cells and the plasmids encoding EGFP-fusion proteins of actin, p40, mDia1ΔN3, WAVE, and VASP. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the NIH under award numbers R01 GM114666 (to D.S.K.), R01 GM079265 (to D.R.K.), and R01 GM114201 (to D.V.). D.B.H. was supported by a fellowship from the Infectious Diseases Institute (OSU). A.J.H. was supported by MCB Training Grant T32 GM007183-39 and NSF GRFPDGE-1144082. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
    Introduction Actin, the most abundant component of the cytoskeleton, regulates the responses of cells to external deformations and its interaction with myosin generates the contraction of muscle cells (Lodish et al., 2016). Actin, together with several associated proteins, plays an active mechanicochemical role in a wide range of cellular functions such as cell motility, cell division, endocytosis, and cell internal organization (Alberts et al., 2014). Actin is chiefly found in two forms, namely, in an unassembled globular form (G-actin) or in a filamentous polymer (F-actin). To form helical F-actin, G-actin polymerizes in a head to tail fashion that each monomer interacts with the G-actin ahead and behind it but also to its side (Cooper and Hausman, 2013). It has been reported that malfunctioning of actin can lead to various diseases such as cancer development and tumor formation (Machesky, Tang, 2009, Yilmaz, Christofori, 2009), cardiovascular diseases (Guo, Pannu, Tran-Fadulu, Papke, Robert, Avidan, Bourgeois, Estrera, Safi, Sparks, 2007, Guo, Papke, Tran-Fadulu, Regalado, Avidan, Johnson, Kim, Pannu, Willing, Sparks, 2009), deafness (Zhu et al., 2003) and dystonia (Procaccio et al., 2006). Therefore, in the recent decades, many studies have been conducted on the mechanical behavior of actin and there is considerable interest in elucidating the mechanical properties of this protein.